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Sist revidert av:

  1. Alroughani R, Boyko A. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: a review. BMC Neurol. 2018;18(1):27. PMID: 29523094 PubMed  
  2. Yeh EA, Chitnis T, Krupp L, et al. Pediatric multiple sclerosis. Nat Rev Neurol. 2009;5(11):621-631. PMID: 19826402 PubMed  
  3. Simone IL, Carrara D, Tortorella C, et al. Course and prognosis in early-onset MS: comparison with adult-onset forms. Neurology. 2002;59(12):1922-1928. PMID: 12499484 PubMed  
  4. Chitnis T, Glanz B, Jaffin S, Healy B. Demographics of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis in an MS center population from the Northeastern United States. Mult Scler. 2009;15(5):627-631. PMID: 19299440 PubMed  
  5. Boiko A, Vorobeychik G, Paty D, Devonshire V, Sadovnick D, University of British Columbia MSCN. Early onset multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study. Neurology. 2002;59(7):1006-1010. PMID: 12370453 PubMed  
  6. Banwell B, Bar-Or A, Arnold DL, Sadovnick D, Narayanan S, McGowan M, O'Mahony J, Magalhaes S, Hanwell H, Vieth R, Tellier R, Vincent T, Disanto G, Ebers G, Wambera K, Connolly MB, Yager J, Mah JK, Booth F, Sebire G, Callen D, Meaney B, Dilenge ME, Lortie A, Pohl D, Doja A, Venketaswaran S, Levin S, Macdonald EA, Meek D, Wood E, Lowry N, Buckley D, Yim C, Awuku M, Cooper P, Grand'maison F, Baird JB, Bhan V, Marrie RA. Clinical, environmental, and genetic determinants of multiple sclerosis in children with acute demyelination: a prospective national cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2011 May;10(5):436-45. PMID: 21459044. PubMed  
  7. Renoux C, Vukusic S, Mikaeloff Y, et al. Natural history of multiple sclerosis with childhood onset. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(25):2603-2613. PMID: 17582070 PubMed  
  8. Fadda G, Armangue T, Hacohen Y, Chitnis T, Banwell B. Paediatric multiple sclerosis and antibody-associated demyelination: clinical, imaging, and biological considerations for diagnosis and care. Lancet Neurol. 2021 Feb;20(2):136-149. PMID: 33484648. PubMed  
  9. Harding KE, Liang K, Cossburn MD, et al. Long-term outcome of paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis: a population-based study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84(2):141-147. PMID: 23154123 PubMed  
  10. Lunde HMB, Assmus J, Myhr KM, Bo L, Grytten N. Survival and cause of death in multiple sclerosis: a 60-year longitudinal population study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2017;88(8):621-625. PMID: 28365589 PubMed  
  11. Chitnis T, Tardieu M, Amato MP, et al. International Pediatric MS Study Group Clinical Trials Summit: meeting report. Neurology. 2013;80(12):1161-1168. PMID: 23509048 PubMed  
  12. Wong YYM, de Mol CL, van der Vuurst de Vries RM, et al. Real-world validation of the 2017 McDonald criteria for pediatric MS. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2019;6(2):e528. PMID: 30697581 PubMed  
  13. Matricardi S, Farello G, Savasta S, Verrotti A. Understanding Childhood Neuroimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System. Front Pediatr. 2019;7:511. PMID: 31921724 PubMed  
  14. Waldman A, Ghezzi A, Bar-Or A, Mikaeloff Y, Tardieu M, Banwell B. Multiple sclerosis in children: an update on clinical diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, and research. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13(9):936-948. PMID: 25142460 PubMed  
  15. Banwell B, Krupp L, Kennedy J, et al. Clinical features and viral serologies in children with multiple sclerosis: a multinational observational study. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6(9):773-781. PMID: 17689148 PubMed  
  16. Gadoth N. Multiple sclerosis in children. Brain Dev. 2003;25(4):229-232. PMID: 12767451 PubMed  
  17. Amato MP, Goretti B, Ghezzi A, et al. Neuropsychological features in childhood and juvenile multiple sclerosis: five-year follow-up. Neurology. 2014;83(16):1432-1438. PMID: 25217060 PubMed  
  18. Storm Van's Gravesande K, Blaschek A, Calabrese P, Rostásy K, Huppke P, Kessler J J, Kalbe E, Mall V; MUSICADO Study group. Fatigue and depression predict health-related quality of life in patients with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 Nov;36:101368. PMID: 31557681.
  19. Bigi S, Marrie RA, Till C, et al. The computer-based Symbol Digit Modalities Test: establishing age-expected performance in healthy controls and evaluation of pediatric MS patients. Neurol Sci. 2017;38(4):635-642. PMID: 28078569 PubMed  
  20. Amato MP, Krupp LB, Charvet LE, Penner I, Till C. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: Cognition and mood. Neurology. 2016;87(9 Suppl 2):S82-87. PMID: 27572867 PubMed  
  21. Rocca MA, Absinta M, Amato MP, et al. Posterior brain damage and cognitive impairment in pediatric multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2014;82(15):1314-1321. PMID: 24647027 PubMed  
  22. Amato MP, Goretti B, Ghezzi A, et al. Cognitive and psychosocial features of childhood and juvenile MS. Neurology. 2008;70(20):1891-1897. PMID: 18474844 PubMed  
  23. Weier K, Till C, Fonov V, et al. Contribution of the cerebellum to cognitive performance in children and adolescents with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2016;22(5):599-607. PMID: 26203072 PubMed  
  24. Rocca MA, Morelli ME, Amato MP, et al. Regional hippocampal involvement and cognitive impairment in pediatric multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2016;22(5):628-640. PMID: 26286701 PubMed  
  25. Matricardi S, Verrotti A, Chiarelli F, Cerminara C, Curatolo P. Current advances in childhood absence epilepsy. Pediatr Neurol. 2014;50(3):205-212. PMID: 24530152 PubMed  
  26. Etemadifar M, Abtahi SH, Roomizadeh P. Epileptic seizures in multiple sclerosis: a population-based survey in Iran. Acta Neurol Belg. 2013;113(3):271-278. PMID: 23111776 PubMed  
  27. Boiko AN, Gusev EI, Sudomoina MA, et al. Association and linkage of juvenile MS with HLA-DR2(15) in Russians. Neurology. 2002;58(4):658-660. PMID: 11865153 PubMed  
  28. Mikaeloff Y, Caridade G, Tardieu M, Suissa S, group Ks. Parental smoking at home and the risk of childhood-onset multiple sclerosis in children. Brain. 2007;130(Pt 10):2589-2595. PMID: 17827175 PubMed  
  29. Lavery AM, Collins BN, Waldman AT, et al. The contribution of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure to pediatric multiple sclerosis risk. Mult Scler. 2019;25(4):515-522. PMID: 29393768 PubMed  
  30. Huppke B, Ellenberger D, Rosewich H, Friede T, Gartner J, Huppke P. Clinical presentation of pediatric multiple sclerosis before puberty. Eur J Neurol. 2014;21(3):441-446. PMID: 24330201 PubMed  
  31. Ramagopalan SV, Valdar W, Criscuoli M, et al. Age of puberty and the risk of multiple sclerosis: a population based study. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16(3):342-347. PMID: 19170744 PubMed  
  32. Langer-Gould A, Brara SM, Beaber BE, Koebnick C. Childhood obesity and risk of pediatric multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome. Neurology. 2013;80(6):548-552. PMID: 23365063 PubMed  
  33. Hoglund RAA, Meyer HE, Stigum H, et al. Association of Body Mass Index in Adolescence and Young Adulthood and Long-term Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Population-Based Study. Neurology. 2021;97(23):e2253-e2261. PMID: 34697245 PubMed  
  34. Duignan S, Brownlee W, Wassmer E, et al. Paediatric multiple sclerosis: a new era in diagnosis and treatment. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2019;61(9):1039-1049. PMID: 30932181 PubMed  
  35. Peche SS, Alshekhlee A, Kelly J, Lenox J, Mar S. A long-term follow-up study using IPMSSG criteria in children with CNS demyelination. Pediatr Neurol. 2013;49(5):329-334. PMID: 23993834 PubMed  
  36. Callen DJ, Shroff MM, Branson HM, et al. MRI in the diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2009;72(11):961-967. PMID: 19038852 PubMed  
  37. Ketelslegers IA, Neuteboom RF, Boon M, Catsman-Berrevoets CE, Hintzen RQ, Dutch Pediatric MSSG. A comparison of MRI criteria for diagnosing pediatric ADEM and MS. Neurology. 2010;74(18):1412-1415. PMID: 20335562 PubMed  
  38. Yeh EA, Waubant E, Krupp LB, et al. Multiple sclerosis therapies in pediatric patients with refractory multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2011;68(4):437-444. PMID: 21149803 PubMed  
  39. Baroncini D, Zaffaroni M, Moiola L, et al. Long-term follow-up of pediatric MS patients starting treatment with injectable first-line agents: A multicentre, Italian, retrospective, observational study. Mult Scler. 2019;25(3):399-407. PMID: 29363396 PubMed  
  40. Chitnis T, Arnold DL, Banwell B, et al. Trial of Fingolimod versus Interferon Beta-1a in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(11):1017-1027. PMID: 30207920 PubMed  
  41. Chitnis T, Banwell B, Kappos L, et al. Safety and efficacy of teriflunomide in paediatric multiple sclerosis (TERIKIDS): a multicentre, double-blind, phase 3, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2021;20(12):1001-1011. PMID: 34800398 PubMed  
  42. Alroughani R, Das R, Penner N, Pultz J, Taylor C, Eraly S. Safety and Efficacy of Delayed-Release Dimethyl Fumarate in Pediatric Patients With Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis (FOCUS). Pediatr Neurol. 2018;83:19-24. PMID: 29681490 PubMed  
  43. Alroughani R, Huppke P, Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska M, et al. Delayed-Release Dimethyl Fumarate Safety and Efficacy in Pediatric Patients With Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis. Front Neurol. 2020;11:606418. PMID: 33473248 PubMed  
  44. Margoni M, Gallo P. Natalizumab safety in paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis at the time of SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin. 2020;6(4):2055217320966346.PMID: 33110621 PubMed  
  45. Margoni M, Rinaldi F, Perini P, Gallo P. Therapy of Pediatric-Onset Multiple Sclerosis: State of the Art, Challenges, and Opportunities. Front Neurol. 2021;12:676095. PMID: 34079516 PubMed  
  46. Krysko KM, Graves JS, Rensel M, et al. Real-World Effectiveness of Initial Disease-Modifying Therapies in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2020;88(1):42-55. PMID: 32267005 PubMed  
  47. Krysko KM, Graves J, Rensel M, et al. Use of newer disease-modifying therapies in pediatric multiple sclerosis in the US. Neurology. 2018;91(19):e1778-e1787. PMID: 30333163 PubMed  
  48. Margoni M, Rinaldi F, Miante S, Franciotta S, Perini P, Gallo P. Alemtuzumab following natalizumab in highly active paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin. 2019;5(3):2055217319875471. PMID: 31555463 PubMed  
  49. Jure Hunt D, Traboulsee A. Short-term outcomes of pediatric multiple sclerosis patients treated with alemtuzumab at a Canadian University multiple sclerosis clinic. Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin. 2020;6(2):2055217320926613. PMID: 32655877 PubMed  
  50. Weiner HL, Mackin GA, Orav EJ, et al. Intermittent cyclophosphamide pulse therapy in progressive multiple sclerosis: final report of the Northeast Cooperative Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Group. Neurology. 1993;43(5):910-918. PMID: 8388090 PubMed  
  51. Gonsette RE, Demonty L, Delmotte P. Intensive immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide in multiple sclerosis. Follow up of 110 patients for 2-6 years. J Neurol. 1977;214(3):173-181. PMID: 65452 PubMed  
  52. Hommers OR, Lamers KJ, Reekers P. Effect of intensive immunosuppression on the course of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. J Neurol. 1980;223(3):177-190. PubMed  
  53. Makhani N, Gorman MP, Branson HM, Stazzone L, Banwell BL, Chitnis T. Cyclophosphamide therapy in pediatric multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2009;72(24):2076-2082. PMID: 19439723 PubMed  
  54. Marriott JJ, Miyasaki JM, Gronseth G, O'Connor PW, Therapeutics, Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of N. Evidence Report: The efficacy and safety of mitoxantrone (Novantrone) in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2010;74(18):1463-1470. PMID: 20439849 PubMed  
  55. Burman J, Kirgizov K, Carlson K, Badoglio M, Mancardi GL, De Luca G, Casanova B, Ouyang J, Bembeeva R, Haas J, Bader P, Snowden J, Farge D. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric multiple sclerosis: a registry-based study of the Autoimmune Diseases Working Party (ADWP) and Pediatric Diseases Working Party (PDWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Bone Marrow Transplant. 2017 Aug;52(8):1133-1137. PMID: 28319075. PubMed  
  56. Verhelst H, De Waele L, Deconinck N, Ceulemans B, Willekens B, Van Coster R. Multiple sclerosis in Belgian children: A multicentre retrospective study. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2017;21(2):358-366. PMID: 27818023 PubMed  
  • Hanne Marie Bøe Lunde, spesialist i nevrologi, PhD
  • Øivind Torkildsen, spesialist i nevologi, professor PhD
  • Lars Bø, spesialist i nevrologi, professor dr med
  • Unn Ljøstad, spesialist i nevrologi, professor PhD
  • Åse Mygland, spesialist i nevrologi, professor dr med