Hopp til hovedinnhold

Hjerneinfarkt - Akutt utredning og behandling

Sist oppdatert: Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:

  • Skogli Helse og rehabilitering. Lillehammer. www.skogli.no
  1. Hurford R, Sekhar A, Hughes TAT, Muir KW. Diagnosis and management of acute ischaemic stroke. Pract Neurol. 2020 Aug;20(4):304-316. Epub 2020 Jun 7. PMID: 32507747. PubMed  
  2. Shulman JG, Cervantes-Arslanian AM. Infectious Etiologies of Stroke. Semin Neurol. 2019 Aug;39(4):482-494. PMID: 31533189. PubMed  
  3. Nasjonal faglig retningslinje for behandling og rehabilitering ved hjerneslag Akuttfasen – undersøkelse og behandling ved hjerneslag) https://www.helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/hjerneslag www.helsedirektoratet.no  
  4. Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, Adeoye OM, Bambakidis NC, Becker K, Biller J, Brown M, Demaerschalk BM, Hoh B, Jauch EC, Kidwell CS, Leslie-Mazwi TM, Ovbiagele B, Scott PA, Sheth KN, Southerland AM, Summers DV, Tirschwell DL; American Heart Association Stroke Council.. 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2018. pmid:30227311 PubMed  
  5. Bath PM, Krishnan K.. Interventions for deliberately altering blood pressure in acute stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014. pmid:25353321 PubMed  
  6. Bernhardt J, Churilov L, Ellery F, Collier J, Chamberlain J, Langhorne P, Lindley RI, Moodie M, Dewey H, Thrift AG, Donnan G;. Prespecified dose-response analysis for A Very Early Rehabilitation Trial (AVERT).. Neurology 2016; Jun 7;86(23):.: 2138-45. pmid:26888985 PubMed  
  7. Fure B, Holte HH, Hov L, Vist GE, Kateraas LH, Indredavik B. Veldig tidlig mobilisering ved akutt hjerneslag Very early mobilisation in cases of acute stroke. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2018 Oct 15;138(17). Norwegian. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.17.0924. PMID: 30378408. PubMed  
  8. Wang Y, Wang Y, Zhao X, Liu L, Wang D, Wang C, Wang C, Li H, Meng X, Cui L, Jia J, Dong Q, Xu A, Zeng J, Li Y, Wang Z, Xia H, Johnston SC; CHANCE Investigators.. Clopidogrel with aspirin in acute minor stroke or transient ischemic attack.. N Engl J Med 2013; Jul 4;369(1):: 11-9. pmid:23803136 PubMed  
  9. Li Z, Wang Y, Zhao X, Liu L, Wang D, Wang C, Meng X, Li H, Pan Y, Wang X, Wang C, Yang X, Zhang C, Jing J, Xian Y, Johnston SC, Wang Y; CHANCE Investigators.. Treatment Effect of Clopidogrel Plus Aspirin Within 12 Hours of Acute Minor Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack.. J Am Heart Assoc 2016. pmid:27001965 PubMed  
  10. Clopidogrel and Aspirin in Acute Ischemic Stroke and High-Risk TIA. Clopidogrel and Aspirin in Acute Ischemic Stroke and High-Risk TIA. N Engl J Med. 2018; Jul 19;379(3):: 215-225. pmid:29766750 PubMed  
  11. Kimberly WT, Sheth KN. Approach to severe hemispheric stroke. Neurology 2011; 15;76 (7 Suppl 2): S50-6. PMID: 21321352 PubMed  
  12. Yu JW, Choi JH, Kim DH, Cha JK, Huh JT. Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in patients older than 70 years old. J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg 2012; 14(2): 65-74.
  13. Jüttler E, Unterberg A, Woitzik J, et al. Hemicraniectomy in older patients with extensive middle-cerebral-artery stroke. N Engl J Med 2014; 370: 1091-100. pmid:24645942 PubMed  
  14. Dennis M, Sandercock P, Graham C, Forbes J. The Clots in Legs Or sTockings after Stroke (CLOTS) 3 trial: a randomised controlled trial to determine whether or not intermittent pneumatic compression reduces the risk of post-stroke deep vein thrombosis and to estimate its cost-effectiveness.. Health Technol Assess. 2015; Sep;19(76):: 1-90. pmid: 26307376 PubMed  
  15. Qaseem A, Chou R, Humphrey LL, Starkey M, Shekelle P; for the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Hospitalized Patients. Ann Intern Med 2011; 155: 625-632. PMID:22041951 PubMed  
  16. Cappellari M, Carletti M, Danese A, Bovi P. Early introduction of direct oral anticoagulants in cardioembolic stroke patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2016 Oct;42(3):393-8 . pmid:27329483 PubMed  
  17. Seiffge DJ, Traenka C, Polymeris A, Hert L, Peters N, Lyrer P, Engelter ST, Bonati LH, De Marchis GM. Early start of DOAC after ischemic stroke: Risk of intracranial hemorrhage and recurrent events. Neurology. 2016 Nov 1;87(18):1856-1862. PMID: . pmid: 27694266 PubMed  
  18. Macha K, Volbers B, Bobinger T, Kurka N, Breuer L, Huttner HB, Schwab S, Köhrmann M. Early Initiation of Anticoagulation with Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Patients after Transient Ischemic Attack or Ischemic Stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016 Sep;25(9):2317-21 . pmid: 27449113 PubMed  
  19. Leung T, Leung H, Soo YO, Mok VC, Wong KS. The prognosis of acute symptomatic seizures after ischaemic stroke.. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2016. pmid:26818728 PubMed  
  20. Sposato LA1, Cipriano LE2, Saposnik G3, Ruíz Vargas E4, Riccio PM4, Hachinski V4.. Diagnosis of atrial fibrillation after stroke and transient ischaemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2015 ; Apr;14(4): 377-87. pmid:25748102 PubMed  
  21. Sanna T, Diener HC, Passman RS, Di Lazzaro V, Bernstein RA, Morillo CA, Rymer MM, Thijs V, Rogers T, Beckers F, Lindborg K, Brachmann J; CRYSTAL AF Investigators. Cryptogenic stroke and underlying atrial fibrillation.. N Engl J Med 26; 370: 2478-86. pmid:24963567 PubMed  
  22. Katsanos AH, Bhole R, Frogoudaki A, Giannopoulos S, Goyal N, Vrettou AR, Ikonomidis I, Paraskevaidis I, Pappas K, Parissis J, Kyritsis AP, Alexandrov AW, Triantafyllou N, Malkoff MD, Voumvourakis K, Alexandrov AV, Tsivgoulis G. The value of transesophageal echocardiography for embolic strokes of undetermined source. Neurology. 2016 Sep 6;87(10):988-95 . pmid:27488602 PubMed  
  23. Fonseca AC, Ferro JM.. Cryptogenic stroke.. Eur J Neurol 2015; Apr;22(4): 618-23. pmid:25597418 PubMed  
  24. Rutter-Locher Z, Chen Z, Flores L, Basu T, Creamer D, Weeks R, Arya R, Nashef L. Sneddon's syndrome: it is all in the ectoderm. Pract Neurol. 2016 Aug;16(4):300-3 . pmid:26968196 PubMed  
  25. Stefanou MI, Richter H, Härtig F, Wang Y, Örgel A, Bender B, Mengel A, Ziemann U, Poli S. Recurrent ischaemic cerebrovascular events as presenting manifestations of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Eur J Neurol. 2019 Jan 10. PMID: 30629793 PubMed  
  26. Süße M, Hannich MJ, Holbe C, Ruhnau J, von Sarnowski B, Dressel A. Intrathecal inflammation in young stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 2019 Jul;140(1):9-16. PMID: 30939222 PubMed  
  27. Choi-Kwon S, Choi SH, Suh M, Choi S, Cho KH, Nah HW, Song H, Kim JS. Musculoskeletal and central pain at 1 year post-stroke: associated factors and impact on quality of life. Acta Neurol Scand. 2016 Jun 6 . pmid:27265610 PubMed  
  28. Bath PM, Scutt P, Love J, Clavé P, Cohen D, Dziewas R, Iversen HK, Ledl C, Ragab S, Soda H, Warusevitane A, Woisard V, Hamdy S; Swallowing Treatment Using Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation (STEPS) Trial Investigators. Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation for Treatment of Dysphagia in Subacute Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Stroke. 2016 Jun;47(6):1562-70 . pmid:27165955 PubMed  
  29. das Nair R, Cogger H, Worthington E, Lincoln NB. Cognitive rehabilitation for memory deficits after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Sep 1;9:CD002293 . pmid:27581994 PubMed  
  30. Gupta A, Prabhakar S, Modi M, Bhadada SK, Kalaivani M, Lal V, Khurana D. Effect of Vitamin D and calcium supplementation on ischaemic stroke outcome: a randomised controlled open-label trial. Int J Clin Pract. 2016 Sep;70(9):764-70 . pmid:27561415 PubMed  
  31. Aarnio K, Siegerink B, Pirinen J, Sinisalo J, Lehto M, Haapaniemi E, Nave AH, Kaste M, Tatlisumak T, Putaala J. Cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke in young adults: A prospective follow-up study. . Neurology. 2016 May 17;86(20): . pmid:27164672 PubMed  
  32. Wartenberg KE, Mayer SA. Determining the optimal target blood pressure after thrombectomy: High or low?Neurology. 2017 Aug 8;89(6):528-529. PMID: 28687719 PubMed  
  33. Richoz B1, Hugli O2, Dami F2, Carron PN2, Faouzi M2, Michel P2.. Acute stroke chameleons in a university hospital: Risk factors, circumstances, and outcomes. Neurology. 2015; Aug 11;85(6):505-11: 505-11. pmid:26180146 PubMed  
  34. Wardlaw JM, Murray V, Berge E, del Zoppo GJ. Thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014. pmid:25072528 PubMed  
  35. Logallo N, Kvistad CE, Naess H, Waje-Andreassen U, Thomassen L. Mild stroke: safety and outcome in patients receiving thrombolysis. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 2014; 198: 37-40. pmid:24588505 PubMed  
  36. Emberson J, Lees KR, Lyden P, Blackwell L, Albers G, Bluhmki E, Brott T, Cohen G, Davis S, Donnan G, Grotta J, Howard G, Kaste M, Koga M, von Kummer R, Lansberg M, Lindley RI, Murray G, Olivot JM, Parsons M, Tilley B, Toni D, Toyoda K, Wahlgren N, Wardlaw J, Whiteley W, Del Zoppo GJ, Baigent C, Sandercock P, Hacke W; for the Stroke Thrombolysis Trialists' Collaborative Group. Effect of treatment delay, age, and stroke severity on the effects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet 2014; Aug 5.: S0140-6736. pmid:25106063 PubMed  
  37. Schrag M1, Youn T1, Schindler J1, Kirshner H2, Greer D1.. Intravenous Fibrinolytic Therapy in Central Retinal Artery Occlusion: A Patient-Level Meta-analysis. JAMA Neurol. 2015. pmid:1148-54
  38. Müller KI1, Steffensen LH, Johnsen SH.. Thrombolysis in anterior spinal artery syndrome.. BMJ Case Rep. 2012. pmid:2296240 PubMed  
  39. O'Neal MA, Feske SK.. Stroke in pregnancy: a case-oriented review.. Pract Neurol 2016; Feb;16(1): 23-34. pmid:26349835 PubMed  
  40. Goyal N1, Tsivgoulis G1, Zand R1, Sharma VK1, Barlinn K1, Male S1, Katsanos AH1, Bodechtel U1, Iftikhar S1, Arthur A1, Elijovich L1, Alexandrov AW1, Alexandrov AV2.. Systemic thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms.. Neurology. 2015; 2015 Oct 27;85(17):: 1452-8. pmid: 26408492 PubMed  
  41. Gattringer T, Enzinger C, Fischer R, Seyfang L, Niederkorn K, Khalil M, Ferrari J, Lang W, Brainin M, Willeit J, Fazekas F.. IV thrombolysis in patients with ischemic stroke and alcohol abuse.. Neurology 2015; Nov 3;85(18):: 1592-7. pmid:26446065 PubMed  
  42. Mazya MV, Lees KR, Collas D, Rand VM, Mikulik R, Toni D, Wahlgren N, Ahmed N.. IV thrombolysis in very severe and severe ischemic stroke: Results from the SITS-ISTR Registry.. Neurology 2015; Dec 15;85(24):: 2098-106. pmid:26546630 PubMed  
  43. Berkhemer OA, Fransen PS, Beumer D, et al. A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2015; Jan 1;372(1: 11-20. pmid:25517348 PubMed  
  44. Campbell BC, Mitchell PJ, Kleinig TJ, et al. Endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke with perfusion-imaging selection. N Engl J Med. 2015; Mar 12;372: 1009-18. pmid:25671797 PubMed  
  45. Goyal M, Demchuk AM, Menon BK, et al. Randomized assessment of rapid endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke.. N Engl J Med. 2015. pmid:1019-30
  46. Saver JL, Goyal M, Bonafe A, et al. Stent-Retriever Thrombectomy after Intravenous t-PA vs. t-PA Alone in Stroke.. N Engl J Med 2015. pmid:25882376 PubMed  
  47. Román LS, Serena J, Abilleira S, et al. Thrombectomy within 8 Hours after Symptom Onset in Ischemic Stroke.. N Engl J Med 2015. pmid:25882510 PubMed  
  • Ole Morten Rønning, spesialist i nevrologi, professor dr med
  • Christian Lund, spesialist i nevrologi, dr med
  • Arnstein Tveiten, spesialist i nevrologi
  • Unn Ljøstad, spesialist i nevrologi, professor PhD
  • Åse Mygland, spesialist i nevrologi, professor dr med