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Oversiktsartikkel i practical neurology (2012) 16.

  1. Stein C, Fritsch CG, Robinson C, Sbruzzi G, Plentz RD. Effects of Electrical Stimulation in Spastic Muscles After Stroke: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Stroke. 2015 Aug;46(8):2197-205 . pmid:26173724 PubMed  
  2. Lindsay C1, Kouzouna A, Simcox C, Pandyan AD.. Pharmacological interventions other than botulinum toxin for spasticity after stroke.. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 . pmid:27711973 PubMed  
  3. Wissel J, Bensmail D, Ferreira JJ, Molteni F, Satkunam L, Moraleda S, Rekand T, McGuire J, Scheschonka A, Flatau-Baqué B, Simon O, Rochford ET, Dressler D, Simpson DM; TOWER study investigators. Safety and efficacy of incobotulinumtoxinA doses up to 800 U in limb spasticity: The TOWER studyNeurology. 2017 Apr 4;88(14):1321-1328PMID: 28283596 PubMed  
  4. Biering-Sørensen B, Stevenson VL, Bensmail D, Grabljevec K, Moreno MM, Pucks-Faes E, Wissel J, Zampolini M. European expert consensus on improving patient selection for the management of disabling spasticity with intrathecal baclofen and/or botulinum toxin type A. J Rehabil Med. 2021 Oct 5. PMID: 34608495. PubMed  
  5. Dashtipour K1, Chen JJ, Walker HW, Lee MY.. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Adult Upper Limb Spasticity. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. . pmid:25299523 PubMed  
  6. Baker JA, Pereira G. The efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A on improving ease of care in the upper and lower limbs: A systematic review and meta-analysis using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Clin Rehabil 2014. pmid:25352614 PubMed  
  7. Gracies JM, Brashear A, Jech R, McAllister P, Banach M, Valkovic P, Walker H, Marciniak C, Deltombe T, Skoromets A, Khatkova S, Edgley S, Gul F, Catus F, De Fer BB, Vilain C, Picaut P; International AbobotulinumtoxinA Adult Upper Limb Spasticity Study Group. Safety and efficacy of abobotulinumtoxinA for hemiparesis in adults with upper limb spasticity after stroke or traumatic brain injury: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2015 Oct;14(10):992-1001 . pmid:26318836 PubMed  
  8. Gracies JM, Esquenazi A, Brashear A, Banach M, Kocer S, Jech R, Khatkova S, Benetin J, Vecchio M, McAllister P, Ilkowski J, Ochudlo S, Catus F, Grandoulier AS, Vilain C, Picaut P; International AbobotulinumtoxinA Adult Lower Limb Spasticity Study Group. Efficacy and safety of abobotulinumtoxinA in spastic lower limb: Randomized trial and extension.Neurology. 2017 Nov 1. PMID: 29093068 PubMed  
  9. Fietzek UM1, Kossmehl P, Schelosky L, Ebersbach G, Wissel J. Early botulinum toxin treatment for spastic pes equinovarus--a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Eur J Neurol. 2014; Aug;21(8): 1089-95. pmid:24754350 PubMed  
  10. Mills PB, Finlayson H, Sudol M, O'Connor R. Systematic review of adjunct therapies to improve outcomes following botulinum toxin injection for treatment of limb spasticity. Clin Rehabil. 2015 Jul 21 . pmid:26198891 PubMed  
  11. Karri J, Mas MF, Francisco GE, Li S. Practice patterns for spasticity management with phenol neurolysis.J Rehabil Med. 2017 Jun 28;49(6):482-488.PMID: 28537343 PubMed  
  12. Winterton MT, Baldwin K. The Neuro-Orthopaedic Approach. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2018 Aug;29(3):567-591. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2018.04.007. Epub 2018 May 29. PMID: 30626516. PubMed  
  13. Sitthinamsuwan B, Phonwijit L, Khampalikit I, Nitising A, Nunta-Aree S, Suksompong S. Comparison of efficacy between dorsal root entry zone lesioning and selective dorsal rhizotomy for spasticity of cerebral origin.Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2017 Sep 17PMID: 28920167 PubMed  
  14. Park TS, Uhm SY, Walter DM, Meyer NL, Dobbs MB. Functional Outcome of Adulthood Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy for Spastic Diplegia. Cureus. 2019 Jul 21;11(7):e5184. PMID: 31565593 PubMed  
  15. Park TS, Joh S, Walter DM, Meyer NL. Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy for Treatment of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia-Associated Spasticity in 37 Patients. Cureus. 2021 Sep 3;13(9):e17690. PMID: 34650864 PubMed  
  16. Kheder A, Nair KP. Spasticity: pathophysiology, evaluation and management. Pract Neurol 2012;12: 289-98. PMID: 22976059 PubMed  
  • Åse Mygland, spesialist i nevrologi, professor dr med
  • Unn Ljøstad, spesialist i nevrologi, professor PhD