Hopp til hovedinnhold

Autoimmun encefalitt

Sist oppdatert: Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:


  1. Abboud H, Probasco JC, Irani S, Ances B, Benavides DR, Bradshaw M, Christo PP, Dale RC, Fernandez-Fournier M, Flanagan EP, Gadoth A, George P, Grebenciucova E, Jammoul A, Lee ST, Li Y, Matiello M, Morse AM, Rae-Grant A, Rojas G, Rossman I, Schmitt S, Venkatesan A, Vernino S, Pittock SJ, Titulaer MJ; Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance Clinicians Network. Autoimmune encephalitis: proposed best practice recommendations for diagnosis and acute management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2021 Jul;92(7):757-768. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2020-325300. Epub 2021 Mar 1. PMID: 33649022 PubMed  
  2. Abboud H, Probasco J, Irani SR, Ances B, Benavides DR, Bradshaw M, Christo PP, Dale RC, Fernandez-Fournier M, Flanagan EP, Gadoth A, George P, Grebenciucova E, Jammoul A, Lee ST, Li Y, Matiello M, Morse AM, Rae-Grant A, Rojas G, Rossman I, Schmitt S, Venkatesan A, Vernino S, Pittock SJ, Titulaer M; Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance Clinicians Network. Autoimmune encephalitis: proposed recommendations for symptomatic and long-term management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2021 Mar 1;92(8):897–907. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2020-325302. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33649021 PubMed  
  3. Graus F, Titulaer MJ, Balu R, Benseler S, Bien CG, Cellucci T, Cortese I, Dale RC, Gelfand JM, Geschwind M, Glaser CA, Honnorat J, Höftberger R, Iizuka T, Irani SR, Lancaster E, Leypoldt F, Prüss H, Rae-Grant A, Reindl M, Rosenfeld MR, Rostásy K, Saiz A, Venkatesan A, Vincent A, Wandinger KP, Waters P, Dalmau J. A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. Lancet Neurol. 2016 Apr;15(4):391-404. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00401-9. Epub 2016 Feb 20. PMID: 26906964 PubMed  
  4. Muñoz-Lopetegi A, Graus F, Dalmau J, Santamaria J. Sleep disorders in autoimmune encephalitis. Lancet Neurol. 2020 Dec;19(12):1010-1022. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(20)30341-0. PMID: 33212053. PubMed  
  5. Rodriguez A, Klein CJ, Sechi E, Alden E, Basso MR, Pudumjee S, Pittock SJ, McKeon A, Britton JW, Lopez-Chiriboga AS, Zekeridou A, Zalewski NL, Boeve BF, Day GS, Gadoth A, Burkholder D, Toledano M, Dubey D, Flanagan EP. LGI1 antibody encephalitis: acute treatment comparisons and outcome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2022 Mar;93(3):309-315. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2021-327302. Epub 2021 Nov 25. PMID: 34824144 PubMed  
  6. Meng D, Alsalem A, Zhang C, Chen T. Clinical Reasoning: A 37-Year-Old Man With Involuntary Movements, Gait Disturbance, and Hyperesthesia. Neurology. 2022 May 17;98(20):851-855. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200514. Epub 2022 Mar 29. PMID: 35351791 PubMed  
  7. Butler CR, Miller TD, Kaur MS, Baker IW, Boothroyd GD, Illman NA, Rosenthal CR, Vincent A, Buckley CJ. Persistent anterograde amnesia following limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel complex. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014; 85: 387-91. pmid: 24403282 PubMed  
  8. Li G, Liu X, Yu T, Ren J, Wang Q. Positron emission tomography in autoimmune encephalitis: Clinical implications and future directions. Acta Neurol Scand. 2022 Oct 19. doi: 10.1111/ane.13717. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36259555. PubMed  
  9. Bastiaansen AEM, van Steenhoven RW, de Bruijn MAAM, Crijnen YS, van Sonderen A, van Coevorden-Hameete MH, Nühn MM, Verbeek MM, Schreurs MWJ, Sillevis Smitt PAE, de Vries JM, Jan de Jong F, Titulaer MJ. Autoimmune Encephalitis Resembling Dementia Syndromes. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2021 Aug 2;8(5):e1039. doi: 10.1212/NXI.0000000000001039. PMID: 34341093 PubMed  
  10. Blinder T, Lewerenz J. Cerebrospinal Fluid Findings in Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis-A Systematic Analysis. Front Neurol. 2019 Jul 25;10:804. PMID: 31404257 PubMed  
  11. Qiu X1,2, Zhang H3, Li D1,2, Wang J4, Jiang Z5, Zhou Y5, Xu P1, Zhang J1, Feng Z6, Yu C1,2, Xu Z1,2. Analysis of Clinical Characteristics and Poor Prognostic Predictors in Patients With an Initial Diagnosis of Autoimmune Encephalitis. Front Immunol. 2019.PMID: 31231392 PubMed  
  12. Lee WJ, Lee HS, Kim DY, Lee HS, Moon J, Park KI, Lee SK, Chu K, Lee ST. Seronegative autoimmune encephalitis: clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes. Brain. 2022 Oct 21;145(10):3509-3521. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac166. PMID: 35512357 PubMed  
  13. Schwarz L, Akbari N, Prüss H, Meisel A, Scheibe F. Clinical characteristics, treatments, outcome, and prognostic factors of severe autoimmune encephalitis in the intensive care unit: Standard treatment and the value of additional plasma cell-depleting escalation therapies for treatment-refractory patients. Eur J Neurol. 2022 Sep 29. doi: 10.1111/ene.15585. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36176208. PubMed  
  14. Dinoto A, Ferrari S, Mariotto S. Treatment Options in Refractory Autoimmune Encephalitis. CNS Drugs. 2022 Sep;36(9):919-931. doi: 10.1007/s40263-022-00943-z. Epub 2022 Aug 2. PMID: 35917105 PubMed  
  15. Malter MP, Frisch C, Schoene-Bake JC, Helmstaedter C, Wandinger KP, Stoecker W, Urbach H, Surges R, Elger CE, Vincent AV, Bien CG.. Outcome of limbic encephalitis with VGKC-complex antibodies: relation to antigenic specificity. J Neurol 2014; 261: 1695-705. pmid:24935858 PubMed  
  16. Thompson J, Bi M, Murchison AG, Makuch M, Bien CG, Chu K, Farooque P, Gelfand JM, Geschwind MD, Hirsch LJ, Somerville E, Lang B, Vincent A, Leite MI, Waters P, Irani SR; Faciobrachial Dystonic Seizures Study Group .The importance of early immunotherapy in patients with faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Brain. 2018 Feb 1;141(2):348-356. PMID: 29272336 PubMed  
  17. Yoo JY, Hirsch LJ. Limbic encephalitis associated with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. JAMA Neurol 2014; 71: 79-82. pmid:24247910 PubMed  
  18. Rossi M, Mead S, Collinge J, Rudge P, Vincent A. Neuronal antibodies in patients with suspected or confirmed sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014. pmid:25246643 PubMed  
  19. Abboud H, Probasco J, Irani SR, Ances B, Benavides DR, Bradshaw M, Christo PP, Dale RC, Fernandez-Fournier M, Flanagan EP, Gadoth A, George P, Grebenciucova E, Jammoul A, Lee ST, Li Y, Matiello M, Morse AM, Rae-Grant A, Rojas G, Rossman I, Schmitt S, Venkatesan A, Vernino S, Pittock SJ, Titulaer M; Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance Clinicians Network. Autoimmune encephalitis: proposed recommendations for symptomatic and long-term management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2021 Mar 1:jnnp-2020-325302. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2020-325302. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33649021. PubMed  
  20. Ganesh A, Wesley SF. Practice Current: When do you suspect autoimmune encephalitis and what is the role of antibody testing? Neurol Clin Pract. 2018 Feb;8(1):67-73. PMID: 29517071 PubMed  
  21. Jia XT, Pan Y, Di Z, Gu N, Liu Z, Kang YM. Anti-GABAB receptor encephalitis in a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma. Neurol Sci. 2018 Aug 14. PMID: 30109465 PubMed  
  22. Williams TJ, Benavides DR, Patrice KA, Dalmau JO, de Ávila AL, Le DT, Lipson EJ, Probasco JC, Mowry EM/jamaneurol.2016.1399. PMID: . Association of Autoimmune Encephalitis With Combined Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Treatment for Metastatic Cancer. JAMA Neurol. 2016 Aug 1;73(8):928-33 . pmid:27271951 PubMed  
  23. Irani SR, Stagg CJ, Schott JM, Rosenthal CR, Schneider SA, Pettingill P, Pettingill R, Waters P, Thomas A, Voets NL, Cardoso MJ, Cash DM, Manning EN, Lang B, Smith SJ, Vincent A, Johnson MR. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures: the influence of immunotherapy on seizure control and prevention of cognitive impairment in a broadening phenotype.. Brain 2013; 136: 3151-62. pmid:24014519 PubMed  
  • Unn Ljøstad, spesialist i nevrologi, professor PhD
  • Åse Mygland, spesialist i nevrologi, professor, dr med
  • Anette Storstein, spesialist i nevrologi, dr med